遗传 ›› 2021, Vol. 43 ›› Issue (2): 142-159.doi: 10.16288/j.yczz.20-301

• 综述 • 上一篇    下一篇

细菌最小基因组研究进展

李金玉1,2,3(), 杨姗2,3, 崔玉军2,3, 王涛1, 滕越2,3()   

  1. 1 天津大学生命科学学院,天津 300110
    2 军事科学院军事医学研究院微生物流行病研究所,北京 100071
    3 病原微生物生物安全国家重点实验室,北京 100071
  • 收稿日期:2020-11-23 发布日期:2021-01-27
  • 基金资助:
    国家科技重大专项(2018ZX10101003-002-011);“艾滋病和病毒性肝炎等重大传染病防治”科技重大专项(2018ZX10712-001-003)

Research progress of bacterial minimal genome

Jinyu Li1,2,3(), Shan Yang2,3, Yujun Cui2,3, Tao Wang1, Yue Teng2,3()   

  1. 1 School of Life Sciences, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300110, China
    2 Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Academy of Military Medical Sciences, Beijing 100071, China
    3 State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing 100071, China
  • Received:2020-11-23 Published:2021-01-27
  • Supported by:
    the National Science and Technology Major Project(2018ZX10101003-002-011);the Major Infectious Diseases Such as AIDS and Viral Hepatitis Prevention and Control Technology Major Projects(2018ZX10712-001-003)

摘要:

具有最小基因组的细菌只包含维持自我生命复制所必需的基因,其作为一种潜在的工业生产平台具有诸多优势。由于高通量DNA测序和合成技术的发展,目前已经构建了多种缩减基因组的菌株。本文首先介绍了最小基因组的概念,其次总结了细菌必需基因的相关研究进展,然后梳理了人工缩减与合成微生物基因组的相关工作,最后探讨了在设计和组装基因组的过程中遇到的技术障碍和限制,以期为人工合成基因组的实验与应用提供理论参考。

关键词: 细菌, 最小基因组, 必需基因, 合成生物学, 人工设计

Abstract:

Bacteria with the smallest genome contain genes necessary for self-sustaining replication only, giving the organisms advantages to serve as a potential industrial production platform. Many strains with reduced genomes have been constructed, owing to the development of high-throughput DNA sequencing and synthesis technology. This review first describes the concept of minimal genomes, summarizes the relevant research progress of bacterial essential genes, then systematically lists the work related to artificial reduction and synthesis of bacterial genomes, finally discusses the technical obstacles and limitations encountered in the process of designing and constructing reduced genomes, hoping to provide a theoretical basis for the experiment and application of artificially synthesized genomes.

Key words: bacteria, minimal genome, essential genes, synthetic biology, artificial design