遗传 ›› 2020, Vol. 42 ›› Issue (2): 131-144.doi: 10.16288/j.yczz.19-301

• 综述 •    下一篇

Mutator超家族转座子研究进展

从春生1(), 李玉斌1,2()   

  1. 1. 中国农业科学院生物技术研究所,北京 100081
    2. 青岛农业大学农学院,青岛 266109
  • 收稿日期:2019-09-27 修回日期:2019-12-17 出版日期:2020-01-02 发布日期:2019-12-27
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金面上项目(31871642)

Progress on Mutator superfamily

Cong Chunsheng1(), Li Yubin1,2()   

  1. 1. Biotechnology Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China
    2. College of Agronomy, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao 266109, China
  • Received:2019-09-27 Revised:2019-12-17 Online:2020-01-02 Published:2019-12-27
  • Supported by:
    the National Natural Science Foundation of China(31871642)

摘要:

转座子是一类可以在基因组中不同遗传位点间移动的DNA序列,在其转移过程中有时会伴随自身拷贝数的增加。作为基因组的重要组成部分,转座子可以通过多种方式影响宿主基因及基因组的结构与功能,进而在宿主的演化过程中扮演重要角色。目前依据转座过程中间体类型的不同可以将其分为I类转座子和II类转座子。Mutator超家族转座子是20世纪70年代在玉米(Zea may L.)中发现的一类特殊的转座子,其属于II类转座子,广泛存在于真核生物基因组中,包含遗传特征明晰可分的众多转座子家族。此外,该超家族转座子转座频率高,倾向于插入基因富含区及低拷贝序列区,可快速产生大量新的突变体,目前已被广泛应用于正向及反向遗传学研究。本文结合近年来相关研究结果,围绕Mutator超家族转座子的分类组成、结构特征、转座机制、插入偏好、靶位点重复序列以及玉米自主性MULEs元件展开综述,并对转座子研究面临的问题及未来研究方向进行了探讨,旨在与研究领域内的同行探讨相关研究的可能突破点、未来发展方向及可能产生的重大影响。

关键词: Mutator超家族, Mu家族, MULEs元件, 转座机制, 插入偏好, 靶位点重复序列

Abstract:

Transposable elements (TEs) are fragments of DNA sequence, which can mobile from one locus to another within a genome, often replication in the process. Occupying the main component of the genome, TEs can affect the structure and function of gene and/or genome in a variety of ways, and play an important role in the evolution of the host. Based on the transposition intermediate, eukaryotic TEs can be divided into two classes. The Mutator superfamily is found in maize (Zea may L.) in the 1970s. As the member of class II elements, Mutator superfamily transposons are found in all eukaryote genomes and contain many families with clearly distinguishable genetic characteristics. In addition, these TEs transpose at high rates and preferentially insert in gene-rich and low-repetitive genomic regions leading to the rapid generation of massive novel mutations, therefore, they are in great use of both forward and reverse genetics researches. In this review, we summarize the classification, structure characteristic, transposition mechanism, insertion preference and TSD sequence and other autonomous MULEs in maize. Moreover, we discuss the problems faced in TEs’ research and research directions in the future, with a view to discuss possible breakthroughs, future development directions and significant impacts with colleagues in the related research field..

Key words: Mutator superfamily, Mu family, MULEs elements, transposition mechanism, insertion preference, target site duplication