遗传 ›› 2020, Vol. 42 ›› Issue (5): 466-482.doi: 10.16288/j.yczz.20-033

• 综述 • 上一篇    下一篇

植物单倍体诱导技术发展与创新

陈海强1, 刘会云1, 王轲1, 张双喜2, 叶兴国1()   

  1. 1. 中国农业科学院作物科学研究所,农作物基因资源与基因改良国家重大科学工程,北京 100081
    2. 宁夏农林科学院农作物研究所,银川 750105
  • 收稿日期:2020-02-07 修回日期:2020-04-22 出版日期:2020-05-20 发布日期:2020-05-07
  • 通讯作者: 叶兴国 E-mail:yexingguo@caas.cn
  • 作者简介:陈海强,在读硕士研究生,专业方向:小麦分子育种。E-mail: Haiqiang_Chen@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划项目编号(2016YFD0102001);宁夏回族自治区重点研发计划项目资助编号(019BBF02020)

Development and innovation of haploid induction technologies in plants

Chen Haiqiang1, Liu Huiyun1, Wang Ke1, Zhang Shuangxi2, Ye Xingguo1()   

  1. 1. National Key Facility for Gene Resources and Genetic Improvement, Institute of Crop Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China
    2. Crop Research Institute, Ningxia Academy of Agri-Forestry Sciences, Yinchuan 750105, China
  • Received:2020-02-07 Revised:2020-04-22 Online:2020-05-20 Published:2020-05-07
  • Contact: Ye Xingguo E-mail:yexingguo@caas.cn
  • Supported by:
    Supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China No(2016YFD0102001);the Key Research and Development Program of Ningxia in China No(019BBF02020)

摘要:

单倍体育种是培育作物新品种的主要育种技术之一,提高单倍体诱导频率和简化诱导程序是单倍体育种技术的关键。随着单倍体诱导技术的发展与改进,单倍体育种技术已被广泛应用于许多重要植物的育种研究中,展现出基因纯合快速、育种年限缩短、育种效率提高等优势。单倍体诱导技术与杂交育种、诱变育种、反向育种和分子标记辅助选择育种等技术相结合,在作物品种改良上的作用更加显著。单倍体和双单倍体在遗传群体构建、基因功能鉴定、转基因研究、细胞学研究等方面具有重要应用价值。本文从单倍体诱导技术、单倍体和双单倍体应用等方面综述了植物单倍体诱导技术的发展,尤其是近年来利用基因组编辑技术创制主要作物单倍体诱导系的进展,并分析了目前研究中存在的问题和今后的发展方向,以期促进单倍体诱导技术尤其是利用基因编辑创造诱导系技术在作物育种中的应用。

关键词: 单倍体诱导, 雄核发育, 雌核发育, 单倍体诱导系

Abstract:

Haploid induction is one of the main techniques for breeding new varieties of major crops, and its key steps are improving the haploid induction rate and simplifying the induction procedure. With the development and innovation of plant haploid induction technologies, haploid breeding has been widely used in varietal improvement of important crops, showing the advantages of rapid homozygosity of heterozygous genes, shortening breeding period, and improving breeding efficiency. The combination of haploid breeding with crossing breeding, mutation breeding, reverse breeding, and molecular marker-assisted selection will greatly improve the effectiveness of crop breeding. Haploids and doubled haploids have demonstrated their usefulness in production of genetic populations, characterization of gene functions, and transgenic and cytological studies in plants. In this review, we summarize the progress of haploid induction technologies in view of various haploid induction techniques and applications of haploids and double haploids. In particular, the advances on the haploid induction in several major crops by genome editing were briefly described. Finally, we discuss current issues and future perspectives in this field, so as to promote the application of the haploid induction techniques, especially the techniques of creating haploid inducer lines by genome editing in crop breeding.

Key words: haploid induction, androgenesis, gynogenesis, haploid inducer