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法医遗传学研究和鉴定中的伦理问题【专刊】

刘志勇1,2,乌日嘎1,2,李燃1,2,王蔷薇1,2,孙宏钰1,2   

  1. 1. 中山大学中山医学院法医学系,广州 510080

    2. 广东省法医学转化医学工程技术研究中心(中山大学),广州 510080

  • 收稿日期:2021-06-07 修回日期:2021-09-11 出版日期:2021-09-16 发布日期:2021-09-16
  • 通讯作者: 孙宏钰
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金面上项目;广东省自然科学基金面上项目

Ethical issues of the research and practice in forensic genetics

Zhiyong Liu1, 2, Riga Wu1, 2, Ran Li1, 2, Qiangwei Wang1, 2, Hongyu Sun1, 2   

  1. 1. Faculty of Forensic MedicineZhongshan School of MedicineSun Yat-sen UniversityGuangzhou 510080China

    2. Guangdong Province Translational Forensic Medicine Engineering Technology Research Center, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510080China

  • Received:2021-06-07 Revised:2021-09-11 Online:2021-09-16 Published:2021-09-16
  • Contact: Hongyu -Sun

摘要: 法医遗传学主要以人体生物检材为对象,通过检测遗传信息解决与法律相关的生物检材鉴识问题,为侦查提供线索,为审判提供证据,往往涉及到众多伦理问题。本文提出伦理学在法医遗传学研究和鉴定中的应用基本原则,并对样本/检材收集、法医DNA表型分析、法医遗传系谱学分析、法医DNA数据库建设和应用、亲子鉴定和亲缘鉴定、法医遗传学科研数据交流和共享等方面涉及的伦理问题进行了分析,提示法医遗传学从业人员在研究和鉴定中要充分考虑伦理问题,建议有关部门制定法医遗传学具体的伦理要求,建立伦理审查制度,加强从业人员伦理学培训。

关键词: 法医遗传学, 生物检材, 伦理问题

Abstract: Forensic genetics mainly uses human biological samples as the objects, solves the identification of biological materials related to law by detecting genetic information, provides clues for investigation and evidences for trial, thus facing many ethical issues. This paper put forward the ethical principles in forensic genetics research and practice, and discussed the ethical issues in sample collection, forensic DNA phenotyping, forensic genetic genealogy analysis, forensic DNA database development, paternity and kinship testing, and research data sharing. We suggest that specific ethical requirements should be formulated, the ethical review system should be established for forensic genetics and ethical training for practitioners should be strengthened.

Key words: forensic genetics, biological materials, ethical issues