遗传 ›› 2018, Vol. 40 ›› Issue (4): 279-291.doi: 10.16288/j.yczz.17-195

• 综述 • 上一篇    下一篇

哺乳动物卵母细胞不对称分裂的研究进展

张俊玉,吕珊,牛慧敏,雷安民()   

  1. 陕西省干细胞工程技术研究中心,西北农林科技大学动物医学院,杨凌 712100
  • 收稿日期:2017-11-28 修回日期:2018-03-04 出版日期:2018-04-20 发布日期:2018-03-20
  • 通讯作者: 雷安民 E-mail:anminleiryan@nwsuaf.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:张俊玉,硕士研究生,专业方向:动物胚胎工程。E-mail: Zhangjy0213@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目资助(31172280)

Research progress on the asymmetric division in mammalian oocytes

Zhang Junyu,Lv Shan,Niu Huimin,Lei Anmin()   

  1. College of Veterinary Medicine ,Shaanxi Center of Stem Cell Engineering &Technology , Northwest Sci-Tech University of Agriculture and Forestry , Yangling , Shaanxi 712100, China
  • Received:2017-11-28 Revised:2018-03-04 Online:2018-04-20 Published:2018-03-20
  • Contact: Lei Anmin E-mail:anminleiryan@nwsuaf.edu.cn
  • Supported by:
    Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China(31172280)

摘要:

哺乳动物卵母细胞成熟过程需要进行两次连续的不对称分裂,最终形成体积差异巨大的子细胞:大体积的卵母细胞和两种体积较小的极体。不对称分裂现象是哺乳动物卵母细胞减数分裂的典型特征,不对称分裂后的卵母细胞是高度极化的细胞。精卵结合后,细胞重新恢复了对称分裂,但是在卵母细胞减数分裂过程中形成的极性特征却得以保留并影响早期胚胎的极性。本文对近年来在哺乳动物卵母细胞不对称分裂方面的相关研究展开综述,从细胞质不对称分裂和细胞核不对称分裂两个方面对染色体、细胞骨架在哺乳动物卵母细胞不对称分裂中的作用、细胞器在哺乳动物卵母细胞成熟过程中的重组分配、染色体非随机分离等过程进行介绍,旨在从细胞和分子水平阐述哺乳动物卵母细胞不对称分裂的主要机制。

关键词: 卵母细胞极性, 不对称分裂, 纺锤体迁移, 非随机分离

Abstract:

The mammalian oocyte maturation process consists of two consecutive asymmetric divisions, and produces three daughter cells of vastly different sizes: one larger egg cell and two smaller polar bodies. Asymmetric division is a typical feature of mammalian oocyte meiosis that results in a highly polar egg cell. The mitosis of the cell after fertilization exhibits restored symmetric division, but the polarity characteristics formed during meiosis of oocytes are preserved and affect the polarity of early embryos. In this review, we summarize the research progress on asymmetric division of mammalian oocytes in recent years, and mainly focus on the asymmetric division of cytoplasmic and the asymmetric division of nucleus, including the functions of chromosome and cytoskeleton in asymmetric division of mammalian oocytes, the redistribution of cytoplasmic organelles occurring in oocyte maturation, and chromosome nonrandom separation. We aim to demonstrate the main mechanism of asymmetry division in mammalian oocytes from both cellular and molecular levels.

Key words: oocyte polarity, asymmetric division, spindle migration, nonrandom segregation