遗传 ›› 2022, Vol. 44 ›› Issue (5): 362-369.doi: 10.16288/j.yczz.22-032

• 前沿聚焦 • 上一篇    下一篇

沉积物古DNA探秘灭绝古人类演化

平婉菁(), 刘逸宸, 付巧妹()   

  1. 中国科学院古脊椎动物与古人类研究所,北京 100044
  • 收稿日期:2022-02-14 修回日期:2022-03-11 出版日期:2022-05-20 发布日期:2022-03-31
  • 作者简介:平婉菁,硕士,科研助理/工程师,研究方向:实验技术。E-mail: pingwanjing@ivpp.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金杰出青年基金编号(41925009);中国科学院项目编号(YSBR-019);中国科学院项目编号(XDB26000000);和腾讯基金会(科学探索奖)资助

Exploring the evolution of archaic humans through sedimentary ancient DNA

Ping Wanjing(), Liu Yichen, Fu Qiaomei()   

  1. Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100044, China
  • Received:2022-02-14 Revised:2022-03-11 Online:2022-05-20 Published:2022-03-31
  • Supported by:
    Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China No(41925009);the Chinese Academy of Sciences Nos(YSBR-019);the Chinese Academy of Sciences Nos(XDB26000000);the Tencent Foundation (through the XPLORER PRIZE)

摘要:

古DNA领域首次从世界不同洞穴遗址的沉积物里提取古核基因组以揭示相关物种演化的突破性进展,标志着沉积物古DNA研究正式进入全基因组时代。近期,一种新的沉积物古核DNA富集方法成功从西班牙Estatuas洞穴沉积物里捕获多个尼安德特人的核DNA,揭示该灭绝古人类群体此前未知的人口更替的历史。沉积物古核DNA富集突破了古DNA研究依赖化石材料的限制,为深入探究远古不同人类群体在更宏大时空框架下迁徙、演化与适应的历史提供了更多可能。由此,本文将着重解读该研究带来的对尼安德特人遗传历史的新认识及其方法创新的重要意义;此外还将结合人类化石DNA及其他沉积物研究所发现的灭绝古人类线粒体DNA证据,厘清尼安德特人的种群多样性及其种群间分离或替代的历史。

关键词: 沉积物古DNA, 核基因组, 灭绝古人类, 尼安德特人, 丹尼索瓦人, 杂交捕获, 探针组, 种群替代

Abstract:

Recent success in the retrieval of nuclear DNA of ancient humans and animals from cave sediments paves the way for genome-wide studies of past populations directly from sediments. In three studies, nuclear genomes of different species were obtained from the sediments of multiple archeological caves and their genetic histories were revealed, including an unknown population replacement of Neanderthals from Estatuas cave in Spain, which was recovered using a new DNA capture approach. By extending sediments as a source of DNA beyond fossils, this breakthrough is of particular significance to the field of ancient human genomics, which brings about more possibilities for exploring the history of past population migration, evolution and adaptation within larger time-scales and geographical areas where no fossil remains exist. Here, we mainly review the significance of the technical advances in retrieving ancient nuclear DNA from sediments and present new insights into the genetic history of Neanderthals revealed by this technique. By combining ancient genomes retrieved from fossils and additional mitochondrial DNA extracted from sediments of archaeological sites, we may begin investigating diverse archaic populations and examine their genetic relationships, movements and replacements in detail.

Key words: sedimentary ancient DNA, nuclear genomes, archaic humans, Neanderthals, Denisovans, hybridization capture, probe-set, population replacement