遗传 ›› 2021, Vol. 43 ›› Issue (5): 459-472.doi: 10.16288/j.yczz.20-341

• 综述 • 上一篇    下一篇

中药植物紫草天然产物的生物合成及其功能研究进展

林红燕, 王煊, 何聪, 周紫玲, 杨旻恺, 文钟灵, 韩洪苇, 陆桂华, 戚金亮, 杨永华()   

  1. 南京大学医药生物技术国家重点实验室,植物分子生物学研究所,生命科学学院,南京 210023
  • 收稿日期:2020-10-10 修回日期:2021-03-04 出版日期:2021-05-20 发布日期:2021-03-26
  • 通讯作者: 杨永华 E-mail:yangyh@nju.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:林红燕,博士,助理研究员,研究方向:药用植物天然产物化学和分子药理。E-mail: linhy@nju.edu.cn|王煊,博士研究生,研究方向:植物分子代谢。E-mail: dg1930043@smail.nju.edu.cn;

    林红燕和王煊并列第一作者
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目编号(U1903201);国家自然科学基金项目编号(31670298);国家自然科学基金项目编号(31771413);国家自然科学基金项目编号(21702100);国家自然科学基金项目编号(21907051);教育部创新团队项目(编号)资助(IRT_14R27)

Progress on biosynthesis and function of the natural products of Zi Cao as a traditional Chinese medicinal herb

Lin Hongyan, Wang Xuan, He Cong, Zhou Ziling, Yang Minkai, Wen Zhongling, Han Hongwei, Lu Guihua, Qi Jinliang, Yang Yonghua()   

  1. State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Institute for Plant Molecular Biology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, China
  • Received:2020-10-10 Revised:2021-03-04 Online:2021-05-20 Published:2021-03-26
  • Contact: Yang Yonghua E-mail:yangyh@nju.edu.cn
  • Supported by:
    Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China Nos(U1903201);Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China Nos(31670298);Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China Nos(31771413);Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China Nos(21702100);Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China Nos(21907051);the Program for Changjiang Scholars and Innovative Research Team in University from the Ministry of Education of China No(IRT_14R27)

摘要:

紫草为我国传统的重要药用植物资源,其根部代谢产生的紫红色萘醌类天然产物—紫草素及其衍生物,临床上常被用于治疗疮疡和皮肤炎症。数十年来,紫草因具高效的多重生物活性、药理作用、良好的临床疗效、较高的利用价值,引起了国内外研究者的重视与关注,正由于此种原因,其野生植物种质资源常遭到大量采挖,生长环境受到严重威胁。随着植物天然产物的生物合成、分子代谢及其生物技术的发展,药用植物天然产物生物活性功能与药理作用研究手段的不断创新,紫草的生物合成途径和相关调控基因的研究取得了显著的进展,紫草素药理作用及其机制得到深入阐明或解析,极大地推进了紫草素的基础性研究及其临床应用开发的进程。本文从紫草分类、紫草素的结构与组成及其生物合成途径、调控紫草素生物合成代谢的功能相关基因以及紫草素生物活性与药理功能等方面综述了相关研究进展,并对未来可能的发展趋势进行了展望,以期为促进我国重要中药材源的药用天然产物的深度挖掘与开发提供有益参考,推动我国传统中药学的现代化发展。

关键词: 紫草, 紫草素, 生物合成, 基因调控, 药理活性

Abstract:

Zi Cao is an important traditional medicinal plant resource in China. Shikonin and its derivatives, as the purple-red naphthoquinones among natural products of its roots, are commonly used clinically in the treatment of sores and skin inflammations. Over the past few decades, due to their highly effective multiple biological activities, pharmacological effects, good clinical efficacy and high utilization value, shikonin and its derivatives have attracted increasing attention of domestic and foreign researchers. For this reason, the wild plant germplasm resources have been suffering a grievous exploitation, leading to a serious threat to the habitat. With the development of the biosynthesis, molecular metabolism and biotechnology, as well as the continuous innovation of research methods on the biological activities and pharmacological effects of plant natural products, significant progress has been made in the research on the biosynthetic pathways and related regulatory genes of shikonin. The pharmacological action and its mechanism of shikonin have also been deeply elucidated, which greatly promoted the basic research and clinical application development of shikonin. In this review, we briefly introduce and analyze the classification of Zi Cao, structure and composition of natural shikonin and its biosynthesis pathway, functional genes related to the regulation of shikonin biosynthesis, and biological activities and pharmacological functions of shikonin. Finally, we address possible prospective for the trend on the future research and development of natural shikonin and its derivatives, hoping to provide a useful reference for the deep mining and development of medicinal natural products from important Chinese medicinal materials, and to promote the modern development of traditional Chinese medicine.

Key words: Zi Cao, shikonin, biosynthesis, gene regulation, pharmacological activity