遗传 ›› 2021, Vol. 43 ›› Issue (5): 397-424.doi: 10.16288/j.yczz.20-448

• 综述 • 上一篇    下一篇

江苏省植物细胞遗传学研究回顾与展望

王海燕1, 龚志云2, 蒋甲福1, 周宝良1, 娄群峰1, 曹清河3, 席梦利4, 陈佩度1, 顾铭洪2, 张天真6, 陈发棣1, 陈劲枫1, 李宗芸5, 王秀娥1   

  1. 1. 南京农业大学农学院,作物遗传与种质创新国家重点实验室/JCIC-MCP,南京 210095
    2. 扬州大学农学院,江苏省作物遗传生理重点实验室/植物功能基因组学教育部重点实验室/江苏省作物基因组学和分子育种重点实验室,扬州 225009
    3.江苏徐淮地区徐州农业科学研究所,徐州 221131
    4.南京林业大学林学院,南京 210037
    5.江苏师范大学生命科学学院,徐州 221116
    6.浙江大学农业与生物技术学院,杭州 310058
  • 收稿日期:2020-12-29 修回日期:2021-02-25 出版日期:2021-05-20 发布日期:2021-03-16
  • 作者简介:作者简介:王海燕,博士,教授,研究方向:植物分子细胞遗传学。E-mail: hywang@njau.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划编号项目(2016YFD0102001);国家自然科学基金国际地区合作与交流项目编号(31661143005);国家自然科学基金项目编号资助(31771782)

Research progress of plant cytogenetics in Jiangsu province

Wang Haiyan1, Gong Zhiyun2, Jiang Jiafu1, Zhou Baoliang1, Lou Qunfeng1, Cao Qinghe3, Xi Mengli4, Chen Peidu1, Gu Minghong2, Zhang Tianzhen6, Chen Fadi1, Chen Jinfeng1, Li Zongyun5, Wang Xiue1   

  1. 1. State Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics & Germplasm Enhancement/JCIC-MCP, Nanjing Agricultural University, College of Agriculture, Nanjing 201195, China;
    2. Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Physiology / Key Laboratory of Plant Functional Genomics of Ministry of Education/, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Crop Genomics and Molecular Breeding, Agricultural College of Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009, China
    3.Xuzhou Institute of Agricultural Sciences of the Xuhuai District, Jiangsu, Xuzhou 221131, China
    4.Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037, China
    5.School of Life Sciences Jiangsu Normal University, Xuzhou 221116, China
    6.College of Agriculture and Biotechnology Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China
  • Received:2020-12-29 Revised:2021-02-25 Online:2021-05-20 Published:2021-03-16
  • Supported by:
    supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China No. 2016YFD0102001(2016YFD0102001);International Cooperation and Exchange Programme of the National Natural Science Foundation of China No(31661143005);the National Natural Science Foundation of China No(31771782)

摘要:

20世纪初“遗传的染色体学说”的提出和证明标志着细胞遗传学交叉学科建立,伴随相关学科的发展,20世纪60年代末期细胞遗传学又与分子遗传学相结合,建立发展了分子细胞遗传学交叉学科。分子细胞遗传学以DNA分子原位杂交技术为核心,不断拓展应用领域,为生命科学研究提供了直观、高效的技术手段。原位杂交技术与基因组、细胞生物学等技术结合,被广泛应用于人类、动物、植物的起源、进化、驯化等基础研究和远缘杂交、染色体工程等应用研究。通过形象地展示DNA、RNA、蛋白质在细胞中的实际位置,揭示DNA序列之间的实际位置和顺序、亲缘物种间的进化关系和结构重排、基因组拼接序列的质量、转录水平RNA和翻译水平蛋白质的位置和数量变化等。江苏省遗传学会会员单位南京农业大学、扬州大学、南京林业大学、江苏师范大学、徐淮地区农科院等自20世纪中期开展细胞遗传学理论技术研究,伴随学科发展不断创新,建立了较完善的分子细胞遗传技术体系,并成功应用于开展植物系统进化、远缘杂交、染色体工程、基因组学等研究,取得了一批研究成果。本文将主要综述江苏省在该领域取得的重要进展,并展望未来发展方向。

关键词: 江苏省遗传学会, 分子细胞遗传学, DNA分子原位杂交, 染色体工程, 基因组学

Abstract:

Cytogenetics was established based on the “Chromosome theory of inheritance”, proposed by Boveri and Sutton and evidenced by Morgan’s lab in early stage of the 20 th centrary. With rapid development of related research areas, especially molecular genetics, cytogenetics developed from traditional into a new era, molecular cytogenetics in late 1960s. Featured by an established technique named DNA in situ hybridization (ISH), molecular cytogenetics has been applied in various research areas. ISH provids vivid and straightforward figures showing the virtual presence of DNA, RNA or proteins. In combination with genomics and cell biology tools, ISH and derived techniques have been widely used in studies of the origin, evolution, domestication of human, animal and plant, as well as wide hybridization and chromosome engineering. The physical location and order of DNA sequences revealed by ISH enables the detection of chromosomal re-arrangments among related species and gaps of assembled genome sequences. In addition, ISH using RNA or protein probes can reveal the location and quantification of transcripted RNA or translated protein. Since the 1970s, scientists from universities or institutes belonging to the Jiangsu Society of Genetics have initiated cytogenetics researches using various plant species. In recent years, research platforms for molecular cytogenetics have also been well established in Nanjing Agricultural University, Yangzhou University, Nanjing Forestry University, Jiangsu Xuhuai Academy of Agricultural Sciences, and Jiangsu Normal University. The application of molecular cytogenetics in plant evolution, wide hybridization, chromosome engineering, chromosome biology, genomics has been successful. Significant progresses have been achieved, both in basic and applied researches. In this paper, we will review main research progresses of plant cytogenetics in Jiangsu province, and discuss the potential development of this research area.

Key words: Jiangsu Genetics Society, molecular and cytogenetics, DNA in situ hybridization, chromosome engineering, geneomics