遗传 ›› 2021, Vol. 43 ›› Issue (2): 118-133.doi: 10.16288/j.yczz.20-390

• 综述 • 上一篇    

哺乳动物毛色调控机制及其适应性进化研究进展

章誉兴1(), 吴宏1(), 于黎1()   

  1. 1 云南大学生命科学学院,省部共建生物资源与利用国家重点实验室,昆明 650091
  • 收稿日期:2020-11-18 发布日期:2021-01-29
  • 基金资助:
    国家杰出青年科学基金项目(31925006);国家自然科学基金重大研究计划项目(91731311)

Progress on coat color regulation mechanism and its association with the adaptive evolution in mammals

Yuxing Zhang1(), Hong Wu1(), Li Yu1()   

  1. 1 School of Life Sciences of Yunnan University, State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Bio-resource in Yunnan, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091, China
  • Received:2020-11-18 Published:2021-01-29
  • Supported by:
    the National Science Foundation for Distinguished Young Scholars(31925006);the National Natural Science Foundation of China(91731311)

摘要:

哺乳动物类群呈现出的丰富毛色是引人注目的一种生物现象,是研究和理解哺乳动物适应性进化的理想模型之一。哺乳动物的毛色多态在躲避天敌、捕食、求偶及抵御紫外线等方面都具有重要作用。哺乳动物毛发的色素化过程由体内黑色素的数量、质量和分布状况所决定。黑色素的形成过程复杂,包括黑素细胞的分化、成熟,黑素体等细胞器的形态发生及黑色素在黑素细胞中的合成代谢和转运等过程;而在细胞色素化的每个阶段/时相都伴随着一些重要功能基因的参与,并通过基因之间的相互作用形成了黑色素生物代谢的复杂调控网络,进而形成不同的毛色有助于哺乳动物适应不同生存环境。对哺乳动物不同毛色形成机制的探究一直以来都是遗传学及进化生物学的重要研究领域和聚焦热点。本文综述了哺乳动物毛色色素化过程的主要分子机制以及毛色适应性进化的遗传基础,以期为哺乳动物毛色多态及其适应性进化的分子机制研究提供参考。

关键词: 毛色, 黑色素生成, 遗传基础, 适应性进化

Abstract:

The various coat colorations exhibited in different mammalian groups is an attractive biological phenomenon, and is also one of the excellent models for studying and understanding mammalian adaptive evolution. Coat color polymorphism in mammals plays an important role in avoiding predator, predation, courtship, and protection against UV radiation. The coloration of hair or coat in mammal is determined by the quantity, quality and distribution of melanin in the body. Pigmentation in cells is a complicated cell process, including the differentiation and maturation of melanocytes, the morphogenesis of melanosome, the anabolism of melanin and the transportation of melanin in melanocytes. Every stage or phase of pigmentation in cells can always proceed with the participation of some important functional genes. The complex regulatory network formed through interactions between these genes has greatly led to different coat colors. With the coat color polymorphisms, mammals can adapt to various environments. Revealing the genetic basis of different coat colors in mammals has been an important research focus in genetics and evolutionary biology. In this review, we summarize the main advance in molecular mechanisms of pigmentation in cells and the genetic basis of coloration-related adaptations in mammals. Our review is expected to provide new clues for molecular mechanism studies on coat color polymorphism and adaptive evolutions in mammals.

Key words: coat color, melanogenesis, genetic basis, adaptive evolution