遗传 ›› 2022, Vol. 44 ›› Issue (8): 635-654.doi: 10.16288/j.yczz.22-108

• 优博专栏 • 上一篇    下一篇

适应性演化的分子遗传机制:以高海拔适应为例

郝艳1, 雷富民1,2,3()   

  1. 1. 中国科学院动物研究所动物进化与系统学重点实验室,北京 100101
    2. 中国科学院大学生命科学学院,北京 100049
    3. 中国科学院动物进化与遗传前沿交叉卓越创新中心,昆明 650223
  • 收稿日期:2022-04-13 修回日期:2022-06-25 出版日期:2022-08-20 发布日期:2022-07-19
  • 通讯作者: 雷富民 E-mail:leifm@ioz.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:郝艳,博士,研究方向:鸟类适应性进化。E-mail: haoyan@ioz.ac.cn,2014—2020年就读于中国科学院动物研究所,在鸟类学研究组攻读博士学位,导师是雷富民研究员。目前在中国科学院动物研究所接受博士后训练,主要研究方向为鸟类对极端环境适应的分子机制。博士期间,在不同的鸟类演化体系中,采用比较基因组学、比较转录组学等研究方法,结合形态学等表型数据及功能实验验证,从位点、基因、基因家族、生物功能通路、基因表达等角度检测了鸟类对青藏高原极端环境适应的趋同和趋异信号,并探讨了鸟类适应演化的可能机制。已获得中国博士后科学基金一等面上资助项目、中国科学院特别研究助理资助项目、国家自然科学基金委青年科学基金项目及第七届中国科协青年人才托举工程项目。博士论文《三对近缘高低海拔雀形目鸟类的比较转录组学研究》获得2021年中国科学院优秀博士生论文。
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目编号(32100332, 3213000355);第二次青藏高原综合科学考察研究项目编号(2019QZKK0304);青年人才托举工程项目编号(2021QNRC001);中国博士后科学基金资助编号(2021M700144)

Genetic mechanism of adaptive evolution: the example of adaptation to high altitudes

Hao Yan1, Lei Fumin1,2,3()   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Zoological Systematics and Evolution, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
    2. College of Life Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
    3. Center for Excellence in Animal Evolution and Genetics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650223, China
  • Received:2022-04-13 Revised:2022-06-25 Online:2022-08-20 Published:2022-07-19
  • Contact: Lei Fumin E-mail:leifm@ioz.ac.cn
  • Supported by:
    Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China Nos(32100332, 3213000355);the Second Tibetan Plateau Scientific Expedition and Research (STEP) Program No(2019QZKK0304);the Young Elite Scientists Sponsorship Program by CAST No(2021QNRC001);the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation No(2021M700144)

摘要:

自达尔文时代起,解析适应性演化的机制一直是进化生物学和生态学领域研究最重要的科学问题之一。适应性演化通常指在自然选择驱动下,物种为提高适合度而演化出特定的表型。表型的适应表现在形态、生理生化、组织学、行为学等多个层级。随着分子生物学和测序技术的发展,越来越多的研究揭示了适应性复杂性状的遗传基础。研究适应性演化的分子遗传机制有助于理解塑造生物多样性的进化驱动力以及阐明基因型、表型和环境之间的关联关系。目前已有主效基因、超基因、多基因遗传、非编码区调控、重复序列调控、基因渐渗等多种假说可以解释适应性演化的遗传机制。高海拔极端环境的强选择压力极大地促进了物种表型和遗传适应的发生,对多组学数据的剖析为物种适应性演化提供了新的见解。本文对适应性演化的遗传机制、高海拔极端环境适应研究进展以及目前面临的主要挑战进行了综述,并对未来的发展趋势进行了展望,以期为该领域的科研人员提供参考。

关键词: 表型, 非编码区, 多组学, 调控, 高海拔

Abstract:

Since Darwin’s time, elucidating the mechanism of adaptive evolution has been one of the most important scientific issues in evolutionary biology and ecology. Adaptive evolution usually means that species evolve special phenotypic traits to increase fitness under selective pressures. Phenotypic adaptation can be observed at different hierarchical levels of morphology, physiology, biochemistry, histology, and behavior. With the breakthroughs of molecular biology and next-generation sequencing technologies, mounting evidence has uncovered the genetic architecture driving adaptive complex phenotypes. Studying the molecular genetic mechanisms of evolutionary adaption will enable us to understand the forces shaping biodiversity and set up genotype-phenotype-environment interactions. Genetic bases of adaptive evolution have been explained by multiple hypotheses, including major-effect genes, supergenes, polygenicity, noncoding regions, repeated regions, and introgression. The strong selection pressure exerted by high-altitude extreme environments greatly promotes the occurrence of phenotypic and genetic adaptation in species. Studies on multi-omics data provide new insights into adaptive evolution. In this review, we systematically summarize the genetic mechanism of adaptive evolution, research progress in adaptation to high-altitude environmental conditions, and existing challenges and discuss the future perspectives, thereby providing guidance for researchers in this field.

Key words: phenotype, noncoding region, multi-omics, regulation, high altitudes