遗传 ›› 2021, Vol. 43 ›› Issue (12): 1107-1120.doi: 10.16288/j.yczz.21-256

• 综述 • 上一篇    下一篇

转运RNA衍生的小RNA功能及其研究方法

马剑峰1,2(), 甘麦邻1,2, 朱砺1,2(), 沈林園1,2()   

  1. 1. 四川农业大学动物科技学院,成都 611130
    2. 四川农业大学,畜禽遗传资源发掘与创新利用四川省重点实验室,成都 611130
  • 收稿日期:2021-07-16 修回日期:2021-09-17 出版日期:2021-12-20 发布日期:2021-11-23
  • 通讯作者: 朱砺,沈林園 E-mail:1098991954@qq.com;zhuli7508@163.com;shenlinyuan0815@163.com
  • 作者简介:马剑峰,在读硕士研究生,专业方向:动物遗传育种。E-mail: 1098991954@qq.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目编号(31902135);国家自然科学基金项目编号(31972524);四川省科技厅基础研究项目资助编号(2021YJ0265);四川省科技厅基础研究项目资助编号(2021YFYZ0007);四川省科技厅基础研究项目资助编号(2020YFN0147)

The function and research methods of tRNA-derived small RNAs (tsRNA)

Ma Jianfeng1,2(), Gan Mailin1,2, Zhu Li1,2(), Shen Linyuan1,2()   

  1. 1. College of Animal Science and Technology, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, China
    2. Farm Animal Genetic Resources Exploration and Innovation Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, China
  • Received:2021-07-16 Revised:2021-09-17 Online:2021-12-20 Published:2021-11-23
  • Contact: Zhu Li,Shen Linyuan E-mail:1098991954@qq.com;zhuli7508@163.com;shenlinyuan0815@163.com
  • Supported by:
    Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China Nos(31902135);Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China Nos(31972524);the Sichuan Science and Technology Support Program Nos(2021YJ0265);the Sichuan Science and Technology Support Program Nos(2021YFYZ0007);the Sichuan Science and Technology Support Program Nos(2020YFN0147)

摘要:

转运RNA衍生的小RNA (tRNA-derived small RNAs, tsRNA)是近年来发现的一类由成熟tRNA或tRNA前体通过特殊的作用机制加工产生的非编码RNA。根据其产生方式的不同,主要分为tRNA半分子(tRNA halves)和tRNA衍生片段(tRNA-derived RNA fragments, tRFs)两种类型。tsRNA广泛存在于各种生物体中,具有高度保守、结构稳定和组织表达特异性等特点。大量研究表明,多种细胞应激反应中tsRNA的表达显著上升,其参与应激反应的调控是一种保守的生物现象。tsRNA可通过调控转录本稳定性、调节翻译和作为表观遗传调控因子等方式在多种生物学过程中发挥重要作用,此外,tsRNA具有作为疾病生物标志物和治疗靶点的潜力,逐渐成为生物医学领域中的研究热点。本文从tsRNA的生物发生、功能和研究方法3个方面,对其研究现状进行了综述,以期为后续研究提供参考。

关键词: 非编码RNA, 转运RNA衍生片段, tsRNA, tRFs

Abstract:

tRNA-derived small RNA (tsRNA), a class of small non-coding RNAs processed from the precursor tRNA or mature tRNA, broadly exist in organisms and have features including high conservation, structural stability and tissue specificity. According to the different paths of biogenesis, tsRNA is classified into two major types, tRNA halves and tRNA-derived RNA fragments (tRFs). Many studies have revealed that the expression of tsRNA is significantly increased under a variety of cellular stress responses, and its involvement in the regulation of stress responses is conserved across different species. tsRNA plays an important role in various biological processes by regulating transcript stability, protein translation and epigenetic processes. Recent researches have shown that tsRNA has the potential as disease biomarkers and therapeutic targets, making it the focus of biomedical research. In this review, we summarize the research on tsRNA from aspects of biogenesis, function and research methods in order to provide a reference for relevant research.

Key words: non-coding RNA, tRNA-derived fragments, tsRNA, tRFs